How can there be any unit of Time without any Time Keeper ? The concept of recording the birth date and time of a new born began with Vedic Period, when this practice was not even thought of by any other civilisation on the planet, even for many centuries later on.
Vedas divided the entire visible sky in 12 Raashis with each raashi measuring 30 degrees. If you multiply 12*30, the result is 360 degrees (the circumference of a circle).
The 12 rashis were further divided in 27 Nakshatras or constellations with each Nakshatre further divided in 4 Padas. When 27*4 , the result is 108 , which is also a sacred number in Hinduism. This formed the basis of the idea of Time and its Calculation.
The greatest puzzle for us is that the distinctive units of time were known to Vedic people not merely in terms of hours, days and nights, but in units that are fractions of a second, even smaller than milliseconds, as is evident from ancient texts like the Vedas and Srimad Bhagavata Mahapurana.
Below are some examples of the equation of Vedic time vis-à-vis modern time units at micro level -
1 paramanu = 60,750th of a second,
1 truţi =29.6296 microseconds,
1 tatpara = 2.96296 milliseconds
1 nimesha = 88.889 milliseconds
Indian mathematician, Bhāskara in 1150 AD wrote mathematical treatise called, Siddhanth Shiromani, in which he calculated One Year on Earth to be of 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, 9 seconds. When first measured under Surya Siddhanta System way back in early 4th century, it had just 27.56 seconds difference with Siddhanth Shiromani's calculation.
Western Civilisations till recently had a calendar of 350 to 360 days. Islamic Calendar is still of 354 or 355 days. Only Vedic India was precise to the second.
In the Rigveda, a formula to find the area of a circle is mentioned showing that the Rishis knew of pi, approximating it to be equal to 22/7. It was used in the formula for the area of a circle
Area of a circle = pi*(AB/2)^2 where AB is the diameter of a circle.
The symbol of zero and the decimal system of notation is described in the Atharvaveda. It describes how the number increases by 10 by writing zero in front of it. While there is no explicit mention of zero, it must have been common knowledge based on how it is used.
In Yajurveda, numbers starting from four and with a difference of four forming an arithmetic series is discussed. The Yajurveda also mentions the counting of numbers upto 10^18, the highest being named parardha.
In the Taittiriya Upanishad, there is a anuvaka (section), that extols the "Beatific Calculus" or a quasi-mathematical relationship between bliss of a young man, who has everything in the world to the bliss of the Brahman or "realization".
The seasons are set by the Sun’s relationship to Earth, which changes as Earth moves through the sky. Twice a year the Sun appears extremely high or low in our sky. According to the lunisolar Hindu Calendar, there are six seasons or ritus in a year.
Since Vedic times, Hindus across India and South Asia have used this calendar to structure their lives around the seasons of the year. For eg, When Sun is with Mars it is Summer time on Earth.
In Rig Veda (1-50-4), it is written,
" tatha ca smaryate yojanam,
sahasre dve dve sate dve yojana,
ekena nimishardhena kramamana" ,
which means Sun light traverse 2202 yojana in a half of nimesh.
If we put the calculated values of yojana and nimesh (1 Yojana = 13.6 Km and 1 nimesh = 16/75 of 1 second) we find this value as 2,80,755 Km/s which has just very little difference when compared with today's modern technology which says light travels at 2,99,792 Km/s .
“Just as the beams of sunlight entering a room reveal the presence of innumerable motes, so infinite space is filled with countless brahmandas (solar systems).”
And on the atomic structure: “There are vast worlds all placed way vithin the hollows of each atom, multifarious as the motes in a sunbeam.” - Bhagwaat Puraan
A careful study of the Vedic literature reveals that the concept of relativity, especially the time dilation, had been known before it was postulated by the modern physicists. For example, Text 8.17 of Bhagwat Gita reads: “By human calculation, a thousand ages taken together form the duration of Brahma’s one day. And such also is the duration of his night”.
A day of Satyaloka (Lord Brahmsa’s planet) called one kalpa, consists of 1000 cycles of the four Yugas, namely the Satya Yuga (1, 728, 000 years), Treta Yuga (1, 296, 000years), Dwapra Yuga (864, 000 years) and the Kali Yuga (432, 000 years), which add up to 4.3x109 years. Same is the duration of the night in the Satyaloka.
During one day of Lord Brahma, it is stated that a total of 14 Manus appear on the earth. The total life of Lord Brahma is stated to be equal to hundred years formed by such days and nights together. By simple calculations, this works out to be equal to 311.40 x109 years.
“Objects fall on the Earth due to one force. The Earth, planets, constellations, moon and sun are held in orbit because of that one force.” (Surya Sidhantha, 400 AD)
“All things fall to the Earth by law of nature; for it is the nature of the Earth to attract and keep things.” (Brahmagupta)
Did you know that Sanskrit is the only language in the world which can document a baby's crying sound as it is without any distortion, as it is very exhaustive and not just limited to few letters, vowels or consonants.
It is said that Brahma was the creator and introduced Sanskrit language to the Sages of celestial bodies. Therefore, this language is also called Dev Vani, which means the language of Gods.
One of the oldest languages known for over thousands of years, Sanskrit literature is the richest literature in the history of humankind.
It is the only language in the world which can use all the muscles of the mouth, throat and the stomach.
There is a reason for it to be termed as the mother of all languages.
Yoga is not just any other body stretching exercise. It is only ritual that integrates body with the soul and mind.
The Yoga, identified the Ida, Pingala and Shushumna Naadis responsible for maintaining the body temperature at a near constant of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. The modern science understood this thing just very recently.
Its deep reliance on breath management or concious breathing has today made it famous worldwide especially among elites and westerners. Not only it nourishes the mind but also each and every cell gets nourished by mindful breathing.
It identified mindful and systematic Oxygen Intake and Carbon Dioxide release as the sole benefactor of every living human.
Ayurveda is not just any early human treatment philosophy, it is the Science of Sciences.
Ayurveda identified the production of toxins within human body due to improper breathing or food intake as the sole reason of all human body suffering. It categorically mentioned that if every cell of body is getting nourished by the Pran Urja (read Oxygen), there is no reason that the body will ever get ill. This fact was recently accepted by modern science.
Ayurveda classified all individuals and body types into three categories:-
• Kapha (Earth and Water)
• Pitta (Fire and Water)
• Vata (Air and Ether)
So, all Ayurvedic treatments and therapies vary for individuals depending on the fact that they belong to which aforementioned body type.